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Indian Satellite Applications to Weather & Climate Studies


Author(s):

B. Manikiam , Bangalore University; Sethuraman Ganapathy Venkatasubtramanian, Anna University, Chennai

Keywords:

Weather Studies, Climate Studies, Indian Satellite Applications

Abstract:

Recent times have witnessed increasing concern over the climate changes and possible adverse impacts on the economy and society at large. Though it is difficult to clearly identify the natural variability of atmosphere versus anthropogenic impacts, the recent report of the International Panel on Climate Change has attempted to quantify the impacts. In India, one of the concerns is with respect to the variability of monsoon rainfall. Every monsoon is distinct and shows changes from the expected normal. It is interesting to note that while the overall rainfall remains with in ± 10% of Long Term Average of 900 mm, there is large variability in rainfall at district and local scales. INSAT satellite in 1982 heralded the era of Space observations and gave the first glimpses of the dynamic cloud systems over India. Currently INSAT satellites are providing global and regional observations. It carries Very High resolution Radiometer (VHRR) payload which operated in two spectral bands – visible [0.55-0.75 μm] and thermal infrared [10.5-12.5μm]. The INSAT satellites give every hour weather imageries of the country showing the cloud systems, their movement and potential severe weather events. The quantitative products available from INSAT data computes the numerical products such as Cloud Motion Vectors (CMVs), Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPEs), Outgoing Long-wave Radiation (OLR), Vertical Temperature Profiles (VTPRs), Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) Studies have been carried out using satellite data and following results have emerged: Based on the weather forecast for next few days, agromet advisories are generated for helping the farmers. The forecasts relating to heavy rain or deficient rain help in recommending suitable actions to save crops. Currently IMD is providing agromet advisories at district level. With the use of mesoscale models, it is possible to extend this service to taluk level benefiting farmers. Meteorological data along with satellites are valuable for monitoring and forecasting of cyclones. INSAT/VHRR images are being used to identify cloud systems and track cyclones, their intensity and prediction of storm surges. Early warning of drought is useful for on-farm operations and to arrive at an optimal local water utilization pattern. Rainfall anomalies as observed from geo-stationary/meteorological satellites are being used for early warning of drought. The paper presents capability of satellites to improve weather forecasts and give valuable inputs to climate models.


Other Details:

Manuscript Id :IJSTEV2I7054
Published in :Volume : 2, Issue : 7
Publication Date: 01/02/2016
Page(s): 90-95
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